The Paris Agreement is the first universal and legally binding global climate agreement adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration sent an official notice to the United Nations stating that the United States intended to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it was legally allowed to do so.  The formal declaration of withdrawal could only be submitted when the agreement for the United States was in force for 3 years on November 4, 2019.   On November 4, 2019, the U.S. government filed the notification of resignation with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, depositary of the agreement, and formally withdrew from the Paris Climate Agreement a year later, when the withdrawal took effect.  After the November 2020 election, President-elect Joe Biden promised to reinstate the United States in the Paris Agreement on his first day in power and to renew America`s commitment to mitigating climate change.   The agreement recognises the role of non-contracting parties in addressing climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. The United States joined the Paris Agreement under the 2015 Agreement. However, the United States withdrew from the deal in 2019 on behalf of then-President Donald Trump, Live Science previously reported. On Joe Biden`s first day as president in 2021, he again urged the United States to abide by the agreement. These transparency and accountability provisions are similar to those of other international agreements. While the system does not involve financial sanctions, the requirements are aimed at easily tracking each nation`s progress and fostering a sense of global peer pressure, thus preventing any hesitation between countries considering doing so.
Although the United States and Turkey are not party to the agreement because they have not declared their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, as Annex 1 countries of the UNFCCC, they will continue to be required to produce national communications and an annual greenhouse gas inventory.  INDCs become NDCs – Nationally Determined Contributions – once a country formally accedes to the agreement. There are no specific requirements on how countries should reduce their emissions or to what extent, but there have been political expectations regarding the nature and severity of the targets set by different countries. As a result, national plans vary considerably in scope and ambition, largely reflecting each country`s capacities, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has pledged to reduce its carbon emissions by 2030 at the latest and to reduce carbon emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60 to 65 percent by 2030 compared to 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels by 2030. Recognizing that many developing countries and small island states that have contributed the least to climate change could suffer the most from its consequences, the Paris Agreement includes a plan for developed countries – and others that are “able to do so” – to continue to provide funds to help developing countries mitigate and increase their resilience to climate change. The agreement builds on financial commitments from the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, which aimed to increase public and private climate finance for developing countries to $100 billion a year by 2020. (To put this in perspective, global military spending in 2017 alone amounted to about $1.7 trillion, more than a third of which came from the United States.) The Copenhagen Compact also created the Green Climate Fund to help mobilize transformative financing with targeted public funds. The Paris Agreement set hope that the world would set a higher annual target by 2025 to build on the $100 billion target for 2020 and put in place mechanisms to achieve that scale.
Under the Paris Agreement, each country must regularly identify, plan and report on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism requiring a country to set a specific emission target on a specific date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The United States officially withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would join the agreement after his inauguration.  The agreement follows several previous attempts at global climate action. For example, the 1997 Kyoto Protocol required 37 industrialized countries to reduce their emissions by an average of 5% compared to 1990 levels. Unlike previous efforts, the Paris Agreement does not prescribe different levels of action for countries based on their level of development, nor does it require all countries to reduce their emissions by a certain standard amount. The Paris Agreement was opened for signature on 22 April 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  After several European Union states ratified the agreement in October 2016, enough countries that had ratified the agreement were producing enough greenhouse gases worldwide for the agreement to enter into force.  The agreement entered into force on November 4, 2016.
 The desire for a more ambitious goal was maintained in the agreement – with the promise to further limit global temperatures to 1.5°C. Professor John Shepherd of the National Centre for Oceanography at the University of Southampton says the deal contains welcome aspirations, but few people know how difficult it will be to achieve the goals. In quantifying the damage that carbon pollution does to society, Trump views America as an island in itself — and we all know what climate change is doing to the islands. It is rare that there is consensus among almost all nations on a single issue. But with the Paris Agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change is driven by human behavior, that it poses a threat to the environment and all of humanity, and that global action is needed to stop it. A clear framework has also been put in place for all countries to make commitments to reduce emissions and strengthen these measures over time. Here are some important reasons why the agreement is so important: At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) was created with the aim of negotiating a legal instrument for climate action from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.
 Both the EU and its Member States are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. .